- Air-sea interaction
- Air-land interaction
- Local responses
of the first kind: the initial value problem of predicting
the evolution of the climate system given some estimate of its
current state; it is generally subject to errors originating from
poorly known initial conditions, predictive model imperfections, and
of the second kind: the boundary value problem of assessing a
change in climate due to some "external" forcing.
forecasting is essentially probabilistic and seems to be a climate
prediction problem of the second kind.
slowly varying variables such as SST, snow cover, sea-ice extent
(predictor fields) to the NAO predictand fields (usually, SLP,
phenomena orientated models (November signal)